Berkeley CSUA MOTD:Entry 48626
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2018/04/25 [General] UID:1000 Activity:popular
4/25    

2007/11/13-16 [Science/GlobalWarming] UID:48626 Activity:low
11/12   Removing CO2 from our oceans: http://www.planktos.com
        \_ Um, not quite.  The idea is to drop iron filings in iron-poor areas
           of the ocean to stimulate plankton growth, which draws CO2 from the
           *air* not the ocean.  When the plankton die, they sink to the
           bottom, sequestering the CO2.  Only problem is that CO2 doesn't
           cause warming, it's the result.  Oh, and I'm sure this will work out
           just like the artificial reefs made out of tires.  Oh wait...
           \_ Wait, so, you're claiming that atmospheric CO2 this time is the
              result of warming, not the cause?  You know that 90% or more
              of atmospheric scientists disagree with you?
              \_ No, I'm pretty sure everyone's been pointing to Al Gore's
                 graph and noting that CO2 follows warming.
                 http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-09/uosc-cdd092507.php
        \_ A lot of scientists are dubious about this plan; it's a good
           example of the problem with carbon credits, because there's
           basically no regulation.  This company would be getting money
           via carbon credits to do something with an extremely questionable
           environmental impact.  -tom
           \_ Actually, they're doing pilot studies to make sure that they're
              not creating harm or not really sequestering the carbon.  So
              they're being made to show it as a desirable scheme before
              they get into the carbon credit market.  As such, it is worth
              looking at.
              \_ It's really hard to do pilot studies on environmental change.
                 This one has the law of unintended consequences written all
                 over it.  -tom
                 \_ Exactly.  I envision giant armies of mechanized plankton
                    rising out the ocean and destroying us with their
                    carbon weapons.
        \_ dropping tons of sulfur in the black sea is going to create a lot of
           carbon offset opportunity
           \_ really?  how so?
        \_ I read an article about this in the early 90s - some kook had the
           idea that the indian ocean was lacking plankton due to iron deficiency
           (despite a relative abundance of nitrogen), spread out iron dust
           from a huge ship, and measured the results.  What happened?  He
           was right about iron being a necessary prereq to plant growth, but
           the CO2 benefits were nil because all those happy little plankton
           were fed upon by happy little krill, who offset the CO2 sequestration
           and released it back into the atmosphere.  I think the article was
           in Discover, and the title mentioned something about "the Ironman".
2018/04/25 [General] UID:1000 Activity:popular
4/25    

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www.planktos.com
Our Response To Current Controversies Planktos Restores Ecosystems and Slows Climate Change Removing CO2 from our oceans and atmosphere by healing the seas, growing new climate forests, and erasing carbon footprints. Image Ocean Plankton Blooms Short-lived floating forests absorbing half the Earth's CO2, generating half our oxygen, and nourishing all life in the sea. Carbon Offsets Plankton and trees both capture CO2 through photosynthesis and store the carbon in their tissues. Once sequestered, this CO2 converts to carbon credits that Planktos can sell in global emission markets. Ecosystem Restoration Restoration of trees and seas reduces atmospheric CO2, the primary cause of global warming, and revives essential ecosystems and habitats. All living creatures benefit from the resulting cleaner air, improved water quality, and enhanced biodiversity.
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www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-09/uosc-cdd092507.php
University of Southern California Carbon dioxide did not end the last Ice Age Deep-sea temperatures rose 1,300 years before atmospheric CO2, ruling out the greenhouse gas as driver of meltdown, says study in Science. Carbon dioxide did not cause the end of the last ice age, a new study in Science suggests, contrary to past inferences from ice core records. There has been this continual reference to the correspondence between CO2 and climate change as reflected in ice core records as justification for the role of CO2 in climate change, said USC geologist Lowell Stott, lead author of the study, slated for advance online publication Sept. You can no longer argue that CO2 alone caused the end of the ice ages. Deep-sea temperatures warmed about 1,300 years before the tropical surface ocean and well before the rise in atmospheric CO2, the study found. The finding suggests the rise in greenhouse gas was likely a result of warming and may have accelerated the meltdown but was not its main cause. The study does not question the fact that CO2 plays a key role in climate. I dont want anyone to leave thinking that this is evidence that CO2 doesnt affect climate, Stott cautioned. It does, but the important point is that CO2 is not the beginning and end of climate change. While an increase in atmospheric CO2 and the end of the ice ages occurred at roughly the same time, scientists have debated whether CO2 caused the warming or was released later by an already warming sea. The best estimate from other studies of when CO2 began to rise is no earlier than 18,000 years ago. Yet this study shows that the deep sea, which reflects oceanic temperature trends, started warming about 19,000 years ago. What this means is that a lot of energy went into the ocean long before the rise in atmospheric CO2, Stott said. But where did this energy come from" Evidence pointed southward. Waters salinity and temperature are properties that can be used to trace its origin and the warming deep water appeared to come from the Antarctic Ocean, the scientists wrote. This water then was transported northward over 1,000 years via well-known deep-sea currents, a conclusion supported by carbon-dating evidence. In addition, the researchers noted that deep-sea temperature increases coincided with the retreat of Antarctic sea ice, both occurring 19,000 years ago, before the northern hemispheres ice retreat began. Finally, Stott and colleagues found a correlation between melting Antarctic sea ice and increased springtime solar radiation over Antarctica, suggesting this might be the energy source. As the sun pumped in heat, the warming accelerated because of sea-ice albedo feedbacks, in which retreating ice exposes ocean water that reflects less light and absorbs more heat, much like a dark T-shirt on a hot day. In addition, the authors model showed how changed ocean conditions may have been responsible for the release of CO2 from the ocean into the atmosphere, also accelerating the warming. The theory of Milankovitch cycles states that periodic changes in Earths orbit cause increased summertime sun radiation in the northern hemisphere, which controls ice size. However, this study suggests that the pace-keeper of ice sheet growth and retreat lies in the southern hemispheres spring rather than the northern hemispheres summer. The conclusions also underscore the importance of regional climate dynamics, Stott said. Here is an example of how a regional climate response translated into a global climate change, he explained. Stott and colleagues arrived at their results by studying a unique sediment core from the western Pacific composed of fossilized surface-dwelling (planktonic) and bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms. These organisms foraminifera incorporate different isotopes of oxygen from ocean water into their calcite shells, depending on the temperature. By measuring the change in these isotopes in shells of different ages, it is possible to reconstruct how the deep and surface ocean temperatures changed through time. If CO2 caused the warming, one would expect surface temperatures to increase before deep-sea temperatures, since the heat slowly would spread from top to bottom. Instead, carbon-dating showed that the water used by the bottom-dwelling organisms began warming about 1,300 years before the water used by surface-dwelling ones, suggesting that the warming spread bottom-up instead. The climate dynamic is much more complex than simply saying that CO2 rises and the temperature warms, Stott said. The complexities have to be understood in order to appreciate how the climate system has changed in the past and how it will change in the future. Stott was supported by the National Science Foundation and Timmerman by the International Pacific Research Center. Stott is an expert in paleoclimatology and was a reviewer for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. He also recently co-authored a paper in Geophysical Research Letters tracing a 900-year history of monsoon variability in India. The study, which analyzed isotopes in cave stalagmites, found correlations between recorded famines and monsoon failures, and found that some past monsoon failures appear to have lasted much longer than those that occurred during recorded history. The ongoing research is aimed at shedding light on the monsoons poorly understood but vital role in Earths climate.